“If the situation is as I have described it, the intellectual bankruptcy of Darwinism cannot be concealed for very much longer.  The Darwinists may delay the day of reckoning for a while by wielding the weapons of power, but more and more people are learning to press the right questions and to refuse to take bluff or evasion for an answer.”

– Dr. Phillip E. Johnson, The Wedge of Truth (IVP, 2000), p. 150.

 Creation-Evolution Headlines, April 2001                                        
Chain Links:   MarsStarsCometsCosmosDatingEarly ManDinoBirdFishMammalNext headline on: Crawlers. • PlantsFossilsAmazingDumbPoliticsBibleDarwinSchoolsEnviroPhysicsMoviesHuman BodyHealthCellOrigin of LifeSETI







. .

Big Bang Produced Heavy-Metal Music  04/30/2001
The inflationary big bang cosmology has been confirmed by experiment, according to reports circulating in the news media today.  New results reported from
BOOMERANG balloon that flew over the South Pole in 2000, the new Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) at the South Pole station, and a Texas-launched balloon called the MAXIMA project, seem to confirm the presence of harmonic spikes in the cosmic background radiation (CBR) consistent with inflation theory.  The BBC News has a picture and more on the “music of creation” analogy.

What are the data here?  They’re talking about measuring differences as small as 100 millionths of a degree!  These data are said to be “consistent” with the inflationary big bang scenario, but no doubt others will claim it fits their pet theory better.  What these stories fail to tell you is that inflation is an ad hoc speculation invented to save the big bang from the flatness and horizon problems, that the original inflation model was jettisoned long ago in favor of a metaphysical version (chaotic inflation) incapable of verification even in principle, that so-called “dark energy” is another ad hoc speculation to fit the big bang to recent unexpected observations, and that it is bad science to place so much interpretation on such miniscule data that could have a different cause.  The gullible media seem to welcome whatever pronouncements come from the cosmological soothsayers and distribute it unchallenged to the peasants.  What we need are some unflappable reporters willing to ask the hard questions: How can you be so sure based on such small measurements?  How do you know there is not a different explanation?  How do we know you are not claiming success so that you can get more NSF funding?  Read our December 21 story for a more accurate feel of what really goes on behind the cosmological curtain.
Next headline on: Cosmology.
Film 04/29/2001:  Discovery Media Productions has just released a documentary entitled The Exodus Revealed: Search for the Red Sea Crossing.  Refuting the belief that the Exodus story lacks archaeological evidence, the film finds clues in Egypt, Palestine, Arabia and the Gulf of Aqaba to substantiate the Biblical epic story.  Beautifully photographed and masterfully edited, and set to original music, the 80-minute film includes new and rare footage from Egypt, Saudi Arabia and even from underneath the Red Sea, where the Discovery crew used a robotic camera to search for wreckage from Pharoah’s army.  The video can be purchased from Questar video (ignore the sales blurb about the Shroud of Turin; this film has nothing to do with that).
    At the premiere ceremony in Los Angeles, another film was previewed, Unlocking the Mystery of Life.  This film will be a definitive treatment of the Intelligent Design movement and its basis in the complexity of life as evidence of design.  Featuring award-quality computer animation of DNA and cellular processes, it includes interviews with Phillip Johnson, Michael Behe and others.  The film is scheduled to be released in September to coincide with an upcoming eight-part, $15 million PBS series on evolution, but funds are still needed to complete the film.  Dr. Phillip Johnson was present at the preview to encourage the nearly 500 attendees to support the film project; interested parties can write Discovery Media at P.O. Box 703, Murrieta, CA 92564.  (Note: Discovery Media is the successor to old Moody Institute of Science, with the same production crew, high standards and experience.)
Next headline on: Movies. • Next headline on: Bible.
Next headline on: The Cell and Biochemistry.

Book 04/28/2001:  Dr. Walter Brown has published the 7th edition of In the Beginning, Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood, one of the most thoroughly documented general creation books.  It combines overviews of 137 categories of evidence that refute evolution and support creation and a worldwide flood (backed up by hundreds of footnotes and references), and in-depth studies of the flood mechanism and related aftereffects, such as frozen mammoths, the fossil record and other worldwide mysteries.  The majority of the book is easy reading for the layman, but contains enough technical detail to engage a PhD.  Also, unusual for any book on origins, Dr. Brown makes predictions for his theories so they can be falsified.  New to this edition are detailed theories on the origin of comets and meteoroids, and many updates to the previous edition.  Answers to 28 common questions are included.  The book is filled with numerous color illustrations and charts.  The entire book can be read online and downloaded from the link above; any portion can be reproduced for teaching and classroom use.  Dr. Brown has a PhD from MIT and was a professor for the Air Force before entering creation research full time.  He has had a standing offer since 1990 for a written debate with a qualified evolutionist on the scientific arguments for creation vs. evolution.

Has Darwin’s Warm Little Pond Dried Up?  04/27/2001
Astrobiology Institute posted a story by David Pacchioli of Penn State University on why he is not ready to give up on Darwin’s suggestion that life might have originated in some warm little pond with the right mix of chemicals.  Beginning with the Miller-Urey experiment, he reviews the history of origin-of-life theories and the major difficulties they have run up against.  He suggests some ways out, such as the RNA-world hypothesis, ways to concentrate methane around deep-sea vents, and ways to overcome the poisonous effects of oxygen.

This article is written with wry humor as it splashes the cold water of reality on the premature euphoria of Harold Urey and his Star Trek disciples.  You have to feel pity for the evolutionists and their undying faith in the primordial soup.  That warm little pond dried up long ago, and gets drier with time.  To use another metaphor, abiogenesis is the Achilles heel of evolution, and it has been hit repeatedly by cannonballs since the optimistic 1950s (not that the rest of Achilles was any healthier).  Follow the chain links for more reasons why, despite their hope, Darwinists cannot revive poor Achilles to conquer their most formidable challenge: the origin of life.
Next headline on: Origin of Life. • Next headline on: Darwinism.
Earth-like Planets May Be Rare  04/26/2001
Scientists at the
University of Colorado estimate that earth-like planets may be rare; 90% of stars may have nothing but small rocky remnants orbiting them.  They base this conclusion on observations that most stars form in unfriendly environments similar to the Orion Nebula, where ultraviolet light blasts away the dust disks around sun-like stars in short order, faster than an accreting planet could form.  Farther from the star the dust grains might coalesce, but gas giants and comets would be precluded, making the origin of oceans unlikely.  As corroboration, the scientists also point out that extrasolar planet hunters find Jupiter-size planets around only 5% of stars surveyed.  For a summary of the paper published in Science, see this summary in New Scientist.  The next day, the Hubble Space Telescope also published images of planetary disks being blasted by UV winds, and Scientific American (04/27/2001) claimed astronomers are seeing the first evidence of planetary birth in the Orion Nebula, but the only observational evidence is an inference of larger dust grains – hardly like watching a planet form.  The body of the news summary deflated the optimistic title; if any planets did survive the ultraviolet “blowtorch,” they would not be like earth.
This story, even though it does seem to rely on quite a bit of speculation, underscores the many “lucky accidents” that make life possible (the Anthropic Principle). 
Next headline on: Stars. • Next headline on: Solar System.
Chinese Dinosaur Had Downy Feathers – Maybe  04/25/2001
A fossil on loan from China shows a small duck-sized creature, presumably a type of Dromeosaur, apparently covered in fuzzy material that evolutionists are claiming look like downy feathers.  The fossil, now on display at the New York Museum of Natural History, is claimed to be the clearest specimen yet to show feathers evolved before flight, perhaps as insulation.  See photos in:
ABC News and BBC News for photos and summaries of the find reported in Nature.  As the news media proclaim a missing link has been found, Carl Wieland of Answers in Genesis has filed a preliminary creationist response to this discovery.  Science News April 28 reported anomalies on the fossil; according to Larry D. Martin of the Univ. of Kansas, in many places the filaments seem to extend all the way to the bone, leaving no room for muscle, skin, or other tissue.  In addition, he said, “I don’t know of any animal with feathers or such long hair on its thighs like that.  This is funny stuff.”
We’ve learned to sit back and wait for all the facts to come in on these claims of feathered dinosaurs.  The evolutionists themselves don’t agree on what the impressions are or what they mean.  Structurally, feathers are complex structures very different from scales, and emerge from different parts of the skin.  What’s more, according to the evolutionary dating scheme, this specimen is later than the time birds were supposed to have already evolved.  And even if some sort of fuzzy coating is confirmed, it doesn’t begin to address the major internal changes required to transform a cold-blooded reptile into a warm-blooded bird.
Next headline on: Birds. • Next headline on: Dinosaurs. • Next headline on: Fossils.
Monogamy Is an Evolutionary Strategy of Deception by Females  04/25/2001
According to the
BBC News, monogamy evolved from women deceiving males about when they are fertile.  By appearing to be ready for sex any time, they make males hang around longer than they normally would, according to scientists from Sweden and the Netherlands.
This article illustrates the very worst of evolutionary just-so storytelling, that abandons any moral basis for behavior and portrays us as pawns of prehistoric, impersonal evolutionary forces.  Here’s a conundrum: ask these scientists if their theories are also the pawns of prehistoric, impersonal evolutionary forces.  Then how do they know they are true?
Next dumb story.
Chloroplast Packs Information Into Tiny Genome  04/25/2001
Henry Gee, writing for
Nature, asserts that chloroplasts were inducted as slaves into bacteria and became the first plants.  The chloroplasts contain nucleus-like structures called nucleomorphs with very short genomes.  These genomes have the densest arrangement known of genetic information, even overlapping genes and using both halves of the double helix for coding.  Abstract: Nature 26 April 2001.
The article begins with “Once upon a time” and spins an evolutionary fairy tale.  Nothing in the data proves the evolutionary story for how chloroplasts originated, or that these and other organelles with their own genomes were not designed from the start to do what they do.  It also begs the question of how a chloroplast originated in the first place.  What can be claimed scientifically is that complex specified information never arrives by random processes.
Next headline on: The Cell and Biochemistry.
Our Humanness: Gene Sequence, Gene Activity, or Something More?  04/24/2001
Nature and Scientific American summarized today the flavor of discussions from the Human Genome Meeting that just concluded in Edinburgh; apparently, it is not the sequence of our genes, but the amount of activity in the way they are expressed, that makes us human.  Gene sequences between humans and chimpanzees differ by as little as 1.3%.  Something else is clearly involved in making us what we are.  A German scientist found that although the sequences of genes in apes and people are similar, their expression in the brain is poles apart.  The genomes of all mammals are so similar that “it’s hard to understand how they can produce such different animals, says Sue Povey, who works on human gene mapping at University College London in England.  What drives similar genes to have such divergent degrees of expression, if it is not DNA?  No one knows.  On April 27, ABC News posted a story about the relation of the genome to the “proteome,” the protein library, with some illustrations of how proteins work.
We are seeing a major paradigm shift in the works.  For years we have assumed that differences in the genetic code (genotype) account for the differences in body plan (phenotype) and behavior.  Apparently, things are not so simple.  There is no correlation between size of the genome and complexity of the organism, as explained in a recent ICR News Commentary: a single-celled Paramecium, for instance, has twice the DNA of a human.  We are likely to see a whirlwind of new theories to explain the connection between our DNA and ourselves.  Don’t expect to find a soul encoded in A, C, G, or T.
Next headline on: Human Body. • Next headline on: The Cell and Biochemistry.
Update on Eros 04/23/2001: see more about the thick dust layer on the asteroid.
Next headline on: Dating methods.

Synthetic “Life” Created in Lab  04/23/2001
At least, that is the claim made by the title of a news article from the journal
Science.  Actually, what two teams of scientists did was trick existing Transfer-RNA machinery to insert non-natural amino acids into proteins.

The title of the article is totally inappropriate.  It’s like claiming that by inserting a new piece of metal onto a car on a working assembly line, you have created a new car.  This news story actually underscores the tremendous complexity of life: “About half of all aaRSs carry out an editing function that double-checks to make sure the proper amino acid is linked to the right tRNA.  If the editor finds a mistake, it clips off the incorrect amino acid, giving the tRNA a new chance to load the right one.  So Schimmel and his colleagues simply mutated the editing portion of one aaRS, a change that allowed it to load unnatural amino acids onto tRNAs, which were then readily incorporated in proteins.”  So they broke something to make it do what they wanted.  This is like tranquilizing the watchdog so you can sneak something into the house.  Did you notice the amazing fact that cells can edit out the mistakes on the assembly line?  Wow!
Next headline on: The Cell and Biochemistry.
Women Are Evolving Today  04/23/2001
Imperial College scientists who studied 2,710 sets of Australian twins claim women are evolving by natural selection to have children at younger ages.  They found that social and religious factors have a significant effect on fitness (the ability of an organism to reproduce itself because it is well adapted to its environment), but even factoring out those influences, they found changes in the timing of the first period, the first childbirth and the onset of menopause.  Dr. Ian Owens of Imperial College said, “This is a really unexpected finding.” but he cautioned against the possibility of using the data for a eugenic program for selective human breeding.
Notice how the evolutionist distances himself from the dark history of eugenics and Social Darwinism.  But aside from that, it must be pointed out that humans are too complex to analyze as Darwinian guinea pigs.  According to the Harvard Law, “Under the most stringent controls of temperature, pressure and humidity, the organism does what it darn well pleases.”  Are we to conclude from these data that working-class women or Catholics are more fit than college-educated women because they start having children earlier?  How can they factor out influences as subjective as religion and society?  How do they measure this nebulous quantity evolutionists call “fitness”?  Fitness is whatever you make it to be: it can be having more children, or having fewer; it can be postponing childbirth, or starting it earlier.  It can be monogamy or polygamy.  “Fitness” is a convenient black box evolutionists use to house any unknown that produces the desired result: i.e., that evolution has been demonstrated.  In actuality, their own definition of fitness (ability to reproduce because of adaptation) is a tautology.  Who is able to reproduce?  Those who are well adapted.  Who are well adapted?  Well, obviously, those who reproduce.  For an enlightening expose of this evolutionary shell game, from quotations by evolutionists themselves, read The Biotic Message by Walter ReMine.
Next headline on: Human Body. • Next headline on: Darwinism.
Evidence Grows for Black Sea Flood  04/21/2001
National Geographic May 2001 issue has arrived, with a photo report by Titanic discoverer Robert D. Ballard on his latest research project: searching for evidence to test Ryan and Pitman’s theory that a catastrophic dam-breach flood occurred at the Black Sea 7500 years ago.  Ryan and Pitman in their book Noah’s Flood (1998) postulated that this event gave rise to legends about the Noachian Deluge (on the National Geographic website link above, you can vote whether you think the Biblical story is true or not).  Ballard has found an ancient shoreline and numerous artifacts including shipwrecks, but not all of them date from the presumed flood period.  Nevertheless, the ship hulls are remarkably preserved in the poisonous oxygen-free water at the bottom.  Research continues; in 2002, Ballard will attempt to excavate some of the wrecks.
While the work is interesting, and a catastrophic flood in the area may have indeed occurred, linking this local event to the Biblical flood is philosophy, not science.  It comes from materialist researchers who do not believe in miracles or in a God who would or could judge the entire world with water like He said He did.  Sediments and fossils around the world bear testimony to the truth of the Genesis account.  Ryan and Pitman reject the evidence and try to make the Bible account sound like an exaggeration of a large but local natural event, having nothing to do with sin and judgment.  It’s not the evidence at issue, it’s the interpretation.  You can’t get a local flood out of Genesis 6-9; and remember, Jesus believed it was global (Matt. 24:37-39): do you trust His testimony, or are you going to also demythologize Him into a sadly misinformed mere man?  See also our November 5 headline on this story.
Next headline on: Bible. • Next headline on: Geology.
Conferences  04/20/2001:  The HUGO Human Genome Meeting 2001, a conference of scientists and ethicists discussing the implications of the Human Genome Project, is underway in Edinburgh, Scotland.  A multidisciplinary symposium by the Royal Society on The Astrochemistry of Life has been scheduled for August 1-2 in Birmingham.

Papers on prebiotic chemistry appear intimidating to the unitiated, because of all the equations and technical terms (they couldn’t be wrong if they are this smart, could they?)  But when you learn the art of Baloney Detecting, you see the flaws between the bluffing lines.  In the first place, the theories are filled with doubt words: maybe, might, could, perhaps.  In the second place, astrobiologists are trying to reverse-engineer existing life back to an illogical premise: that information-rich organisms originated from zero information.  No amount of intellectual hand-waving can overcome a bad premise.
Eye Neurons See Their Way to the Brain  04/20/2001
Through a series of clever experiments on frogs and fruit flies, researchers at the
University of Utah have identified some of the genes responsible for the development of eyes and their nerve connections to the brain.  Without the genes, the neurons seem to get lost and go in circles, but with the gene, the neurons “see” their way to the proper connection point in the brain.
How do microscopic neurons know where to drive their growing tips to the proper destination?  Imagine hundreds of computer cables in a tangled mass moving unerringly to the right socket so that a computer network comes to life, and you get an idea of the complexity involved in a lowly tadpole’s optic nerve.  The genes provide detailed instructions to the growing neuron tip to guide it through the maze of chemical signals.  See also our March 8 story on this subject.
Next headline on: The Cell and Biochemistry.
Cloning News  04/19/2001: According to the BBC News, the U.K. has become the first country to ban human cloning, beating out the United States and the rest of the world.  The BBC News also posted this page of questions and answers about the issue.
Next headline on: Politics.

Web Feature 04/18/2001: NASA-JPL celebrates Earth Day with a clickable map of famous places around the earth as seen from space.  See: www.jpl.nasa.gov/earthday.

The view of our home planet as seen from high above is food for thought for anyone, regardless of nationality, race or creed.  Think of what wonders lie below!  But also, what sin and depravity.  Jeremiah might be prompted to cry out, O earth, earth, earth, hear the word of the Lord!
    In the last days of this planet, an angel will fly in the midst of heaven with a message for the inhabitants of earth: Fear God, and give glory to Him, for the hour of His judgment has come; and worship Him who made heaven and earth and the sea and the fountains of waters (Revelation 14:7).  The ultimate Earth Day will come when the Lord returns to destroy those who destroy the earth.

Biological Motor Caught on Film  04/18/2001
The Japanese have succeeded in capturing images of ATP Synthase, the world’s tiniest motor, according to
Nature Science Update.  This incredibly small proton motor rotates at thousands of RPM and cranks out ATP molecules, the energy currency for all living things.  Your body has uncounted trillions of these motors spinning right now, providing the energy for every heartbeat, muscle contraction and chemical process.  The Japanese images of the motors show unprecedented detail and, for the first time, actually show the little motor turning.  “We couldn’t ever build a motor that small - but nature has,” remarks one scientist.  On April 24, Science reported on this story with a picture of how they photographed one of nature’s most “splendid machines.”

Notice how the article shows no hesitancy in calling the molecular assemblage a motor.  How are motors made?  By throwing parts together at random and hoping they work as a unit?  Incomprehensible how anyone can believe that, yet that is the current naturalistic myth.  On the contrary!  ATP synthase is one of the exquisite marvels of life, essential to all living things, wonderfully complex and DESIGNED for a purpose.  Biochemistry is making Darwinism increasingly untenable.  ATP synthase is just one more fantastic example of irreducible complexity to use in making the case for creation.
Cool!  You’ve got to see this incredible animation of ATP synthase in action!  German scientists have made a computer-generated model of how it works.  Watch the model rotate in slo-mo and snap the ATP molecules together.  Look at all the precise parts functioning like a finely-crafted machine, then realize these motors spin at about 6000 RPM!.  Click on “Rotary ATP Synthase” and watch if your browser supports MOV format, or download it and play it with QuickTime.  (Warning; the 6mb file takes over 30 minutes to download at 56kb.)  Many more illustrations of ATP synthase are provided at this site and others indicated in our main story above.
Next headline on: The Cell and Biochemistry. • Next headline on: Human Body. • Next amazing story.
Article 04/17/2001: Tom Bethell, writing for the American Spectator an article entitled “The Road to Nowhere” (reproduced on the Discovery Institute website, claims “The genome isn’t a code, and we can”t read it.”  He reports how the human genome is far more complex than earlier claimed, because the old one-gene one-protein hypothesis appears to be incorrect; a gene can code for several tens of proteins.  This means the difference between man and apes cannot be simply correlated to the difference in gene count, for instance.  The article contains statements by Dr. David Baltimore, James Watson and other prominent DNA scientists to the effect that it may be many decades before we understand how the human genome works and what it says; predictions that our computers could crack the code appear overly optimistic.

Class Warfare Erupts On Planet of the Apes  04/17/2001
The lumpers vs. the splitters: that’s the classification battle going on between paleoanthropologists over Meave Leakey’s latest ape-man candidate,
Kenyanthropus.  According to Science News this week, the lumpers don’t like creating a new species or genus every time a new bone turns up, as is the habit of the splitters.

Follow the chain links here for the whole comic saga over our alleged ancestors.
Next headline on: Early Man.
Article 04/17/2001: Mark Hartwig,in an article for Boundless entitled “Was Darwin Right After All?” republished on the Discovery Institute website, answers the claim that the Human Genome Project proves Darwinism.
Next headline on: Darwinism.

Stem Cell Research: The NIH has blocked further funding for embryonic stem cell research indefinitely.

Media Often Gets the Science Wrong  04/17/2001
A new book by Murray, Schwartz and Lichter,
It Ain’t Necessarily So: How the Media Make and Unmake the Scientific Picture of Reality, has just been announced.  “Have the cows gone mad?  Are the ice caps melting?  Is a woman raped every nine seconds?  If you answered yes to all of these questions, it means you’ve been listening to the media.  If you answered no, you’ve been listening to the experts.”

Read the blurb and be wise.  Their “shocking expose” that “the sources we so faithfully trust may not be so reliable after all” should not be news to readers of these pages.  (The book’s title is an ironic twist on Gershwin’s line from Porgy and Bess, “Whatever you’re liable to read in the Bible just ain’t necessarily so.”)
    The warnings about bad science in the media apply especially to reports about evolution, where extrapolation, authority, big lies, half truths, bandwagon, visualization, loaded words and outright fraud are commonplace.  Also watch out for the increasing attention given to psychic phenomena, UFO abductions, conspiracy theories (e.g., Apollo program was a hoax), and the obsession that nature programs have with all things nasty like snakes, spiders, sharks and natural disasters.  The media often gives a very unbalanced, if not twisted, view of the world.  Turn off the TV, step outside, and escape to reality.
Next headline on: Politics. • Next headline on: Movies.
Article  04/16/2001:  Phillip Johnson writing for Access Research Network gives a progress report on his Wedge Strategy for defeating the naturalistic philosophy stranglehold on science.

Cell News 04/16/2001: Two articles from the Journal of Cell Biology on wonders in the cell, summarized in EurekAlert: (1) A story about control mechanisms involved in cell division, and (2) A story about how yeast cells are able to keep their nuclei in the center.  There is also (3) this story summarized in Science Now describing how plants can sense the cold and adjust their processes to keep from freezing.  And on April 18, (4) EurekAlert published a summary of a study that explores how white blood cells are able to find their way to infected areas.
Next headline on: Plants. • Next headline on: The Cell and Biochemistry.

Astrobiologists Explore Alien World Under the Sea  04/16/2001
Convinced that deep-sea vents hold clues to the evolution of life,
NASA astrobiologists are studying the alien communities of bizarre life-forms around deep-sea vents.  The bacteria that support a community of creatures around these hot geysers erupting from the sea floor use chemical energy from the hot water instead of sunlight.  “Astrobiologists are increasingly convinced that life on Earth itself might have started in the sulfurous cauldron around hydrothermal vents.  Vent environments minimize oxygen and radiation, which can damage primitive molecules.  Indeed, many of the primordial molecules needed to jump-start life could have formed in the subsurface from the interaction of rock and circulating hot water driven by hydrothermal systems.  If this idea proves true, then as Van Dover gazes through the submarine’s camera at the vents on the floor of the Indian Ocean, she may be seeing both a portrait of life’s genesis in Earth’s distant past – and a glimpse of alien life yet to be discovered.”  Here is another related story on life around deep sea vents.

It is a logical fallacy to assume that just because complex creatures (including bacteria) are highly adapted to live around these black smokers that they evolved there from nonliving chemicals.  You can read a bit of desperation between the lines of this story.  Astrobiologists know that oxygen and UV radiation are deadly to origin-of-life scenarios.  Since oxygen was most likely present in the early earth, and the reducing atmosphere envisioned by Miller and Urey in the 1950s was not, evolutionists are scrambling to find other environments for the origin of life that are even more improbable, such as deep sea vents and meteorites.  So much for the primordial soup.
Next headline on: Origin of Life.
Common Ancestor of Plant Carbon-Fixing Found?  04/16/2001
A report published in the
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences claims that a protein similar to the one that fixes carbon from CO2 has been found in green sulfur bacteria.  The protein appears to perform some other functions in the bacterium as well.
More evolutionary storytelling here.  A bacterium may be small, but it is not primitive.  To claim that this miniature factory evolved into higher plants is like claiming a Palm Pilot evolved into an Internet Server.
Next headline on: Plants.
Owls Excel at Math  04/13/2001
Owls have surround sound, according to
Scientific American.  “Researchers knew that the owl’s aural sensitivity allowed it to create a two-dimensional map of auditory space.  But they may have underestimated the computing capabilities of the neurons that generate this map, according to findings reported today in the journal Science.  Whereas most neurons are thought to add incoming signals together to come up with the appropriate neural response, the owl’s auditory map neurons appear to multiply.
“Birdbrain” appears to be a compliment, the more we learn.  Who taught the owl how to multiply?  Your brain also does complex math without your conscious thought: see our January story.
Next headline on: Birds.
Essay 04/15/2001: Marvin Olasky in World Magazine writes “Which is less likely: life after death, or life after the Big Bang?”  He compares the believers’ faith in an improbable Resurrection with the evolutionists’ faith in the far more improbable naturalistic origin of the universe and life.

L.A. Times Throws Doubt on the Exodus  04/13/2001
At the culmination of the holiest season for Christians and Jews, the
Los Angeles Times front page printed a story entitled “Doubting the Story of Exodus.”  It alleges that virtually no scholar today believes that the Jews were ever enslaved in Egypt, crossed the Red Sea, wandered through the wilderness or conquered Palestine under Joshua.  It interviews liberal Jews today who teach it not as history, but as a story of liberation theology for the oppressed of all ages.

The timing of this story shows the insensitivity of the L.A. Times, one of the most secular papers in the world, to the religious beliefs of millions of people.  But aside from that, it is a case of selective reporting and bandwagon arguments.  It is similar to media attention given to the Jesus Seminar that doubts everything in the Gospels.  The archaeological evidence for both Old and New Testaments is rich and powerful; over and over it is the skeptics and self-appointed “scholars” who have been proved wrong by the archaeologist’s spade.  Regarding the Exodus itself, just this month (April 28), Discovery Media Productions is premiering its new documentary The Exodus Revealed: The Red Sea Crossing which will exhibit archaeological evidence that the Exodus story as presented in the Bible is not just moralizing legend or myth, but historical fact.
Next headline on: Bible.
Discovery Channel Remakes Jesus In Its Own Computer Image  04/13/2001
The Discovery Channel aired its new documentary
Jesus, The Complete Story on Easter Sunday, in contrast to the documentary also aired by Coral Ridge Ministries (see below).  It basically denies everything Christians believe about Jesus Christ, his birth, life, motives, death and resurrection.  It presents a new twist on the long-discredited swoon theory, claiming Jesus faked his death in a plot with Judas.
The Discovery Channel, champion of other computer fantasies like Walking With Dinosaurs, shows its true colors with this in-your-face Easter-time slap at Christians.  Skeptics’ theories have come and gone for centuries; there is really nothing new under the sun.  The Discovery Channel replaces genuine scholarship with invented conspiracy theories and speculations that don’t explain the apostles, the church, the martyrs, the New Testament or the empty tomb.  Take your pick of documentaries: Discovery’s speculative hit piece or the one described below. Next headline on: Movies.
Easter Announcement 04/12/2001: The documentary on Christ’s life, death and resurrection, Who Is This Jesus? produced by Coral Ridge Ministries with Dr. D. James Kennedy and many other scholars, aired Easter weekend on national TV.  Check whoisthisjesus.tv for reruns or availability on video.

Early Man Survives Cosmic Arcade  04/12/2001
Early humans survived not because of superior genes or fitness, but luck - surviving asteroid impacts - according to a story in the
BBC News.  A U.K. anthropologist and an asteroid researcher claim that impacts during the past 5 million years are to blame for most hominid lines dying out.  The line from Africa escaped a direct hit and continued to evolve and populate the globe.  “The reason that Homo sapiens has survived in spite of these global disasters has little to do with the traditional explanations given by Neo-Darwinists,” Dr. Benny Peiser told BBC News Online, along with Michael Paine of the Planetary Society.

This claim is based on computer simulation and inference and questionable dating methods, not evidence.  While it is interesting to note that these two scientists take issue with traditional Darwinism, only evolutionists are allowed to speak to the “science” of human origins.  When the storytelling game is enforced by the naturalism police, evolutionists have total freedom to weave their tales unfettered by disturbing questions like Were you there?
Next headline on: Early Man. • Next headline on: Darwinism.
Robotic Insect Inspired by Real Thing  04/11/2001
Just when you thought houseflies were a bad enough nuisance, comes the revelation that the government could one day spy on you with flying robots, according to a story in the
BBC News.  Makers of flying robots are getting ideas from insects, which are far better at maneuvering.  Insects beat their wings in a figure-eight pattern that allows them to hover and dart quickly, whereas today’s crude robots have trouble flying indoors without crashing into walls.
Who gave the lowly gnat the ability to dart around so nimbly, and Who put the avionics into such a small package?  Think about that the next time you watch a tiny flying insect.  But if you ever see a big, clumsy strange-looking thing fly into your window, better hurry and get a BIG flyswatter.
Next headline on: Bugs and Crawlers.
Big Splat Takes On Big Bang  04/11/2001
Science Now discusses an alternative to the Big Bang cosmology that outdoes its rival – at least for strangeness.  Paul Steinhardt and his Princeton colleagues unveiled the new model at the Space Telescope Science Institute last week.  Dubbed the ekpyrotic model, or the Big Splat, this model comes out of string theory.  It hypothesizes two flat 4-dimensional membranes in a 5-dimensional space that splatted together to form our universe.  The advantages of this hypothesis over the reigning inflationary Big Bang include, supposedly, less trouble with the perplexing flatness and horizon problems.  (For an animated java-applet demonstration of multidimensionality, see Astronomy Picture of the Day for April 18.)
Thus to get around one ad hoc scenario, you concoct an even stranger ad hoc scenario.  Even though its supporters claim gravity waves might support the Big Splat someday, there is no way this model can really be tested without someone else claiming the evidence supports something totally different.  This is precisely one of the main complaints about the inflationary Big Bang.
    For those needing a primer on Big Bang problems, the flatness problem means that our universe appears to have a finely-tuned balance between its density and outward acceleration.  The horizon problem means that the universe appears uniform in all directions even though portions never were in contact (so as to homogenize).  The Big Bang predicts neither flatness nor isotropy; these are just two of many problems with the model.  Inflation was Alan Guth’s magic wand that supposedly fixed these problems, but has been critized as being ad hoc and untestable.  Is the Big Splat any better?
Next headline on: Cosmology.
Article 04/10/2001:  Answers in Genesis has a story about a teacher who is offering a popular community college course that refutes evolution.  It lists some of the lessons learned about this program that have made it successful.
Next headline on: Schools.

Tick Talk Rocks the Clock  04/09/2001
A fossil tick encased in amber has been found in New Jersey that doubles the fossil time record for ticks, according to
Science Now.  The prior record was 42 million years; this one is dated at 90 million years old, and yet it looks essentially modern.  “It’s astounding to me that there's so little change,” says Daniel Sonenshine of Old Dominion Univeristy in Norfolk, Virginia.  The article quips, “And that’s despite a massive change in available hosts some 65 million years ago, when the dinosaurs and other vertebrates went extinct.”  Click here for BBC News update and picture, May 2; did this tick suck on dinosaur blood?

Where have we heard this refrain before, that a fossilized critter shows no evolution?  Why, just two weeks ago with salamanders, and in December with ants.  If nothing has happened in 90 million years, then either evolution is wrong, or the dating method is wrong, or both.  Just how “astounding” does the evidence have to get before evolutionists recognize that something is seriously wrong with their story?
Next headline on: Fossils. • Next headline on: Bugs and Crawlers. • Next headline on: Dating methods.
2001: A Mars Odyssey Premieres  04/06/2001
Saturday morning, Floridians were treated to
flawless launch of the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft (watch these cool videos!).  “Goal One” of the Mars program is to detect whether life ever arose on the red planet.  Opinion is still out on whether water ever flowed on the surface; the Odyssey spacecraft is equipped to infer the presence of subsurface water..
Missions of exploration are exciting and have always produced bountiful harvests of new knowledge.  The problem with the current Mars program philosophy is that it blatantly promulgates the myth that water means life.  Water is a necessary condition for life, but it is not sufficient.  Much more is required, i.e., complex specified information (CSI).  CSI is not inherent in the rocks and sands of Mars.  Nevertheless we applaud the successful launch and anticipate the data that will undoubtedly reinforce Pasteur’s principle of biogenesis: only life begets life.
Next headline on: Mars. • Next headline on: Solar System.
Meteorite Disappoints Evolutionists 04/06/2001:  CNN.Com Space News reports that the Tagish Lake meteorite that fell in British Columbia in January 2000 failed to turn up any evidence of organic molecules important to life, to the disappointment of exobiologists.
Update 08/24/2001: A report in Scientific American concurs that no amino acids were found.

Hope Diminishes for Panspermia  04/06/2001
According to
Science Magazine, Dr. Jay Melosh of the University of Arizona has put the quash on hopes that interstellar rocks could be the transport for seeds of life (panspermia).  According to his calculations, you would have to wait a trillion years for a chance that a rocky missile from another star would hit the earth.  Astrobiologists have already regarded the origin of life on earth as “so incredibly unlikely that some scientists have wondered about an alternative.”  Now that panspermia seems unlikely as well (regardless of the fact that it just pushes the problem of the origin of life to another location), “Origin of life researchers may have to settle for the least implausible of improbable events.”  In another story on Space.Com, Melosh maintains some optimism, however.

A naturalistic theory for the origin of life fails on every front.  It can’t evolve here, it can’t evolve out there, if it evolved out there it couldn’t get here, and it wouldn’t explain how it got there.  Only willing ignorance can explain rejection of evidence for creation that is staring them in the face.
Next headline on: Origin of Life.
Asteroid Eros Resurrects Old Moon-Dust Theory  04/05/2001
According to a news release from
Cornell University, the surprising find of dust ponds in the bottoms of craters on the tiny asteroid Eros, recently studied at high resolution by the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft, has caused scientists to revisit an old theory.  Cosmologist Thomas Gold debated in 1955 before the first lunar missions that dust can settle in lunar craters by levitation from static electricity.  He explained, “If you added a layer 1 micron [0.001 millimeters] thick in the time since the Pyramids were built [about 5,000 years ago], you could get a layer 1 kilometer in depth over a billion years.” Continuing, he says “The features on Eros are so similar to those on the moon, that dust levitation has now to be reconsidered for all large lunar features, and major conclusions of lunar research now have to be reconsidered.”
Update 04/23/2001: See this updated report summarized in SciNews.  Astronomers claim the features are due to impacts, but mysteries remain.  Dr. Joseph Veverka of Cornell says, “We do know there is a substantial amount of regolith from erosion and impacts that is covering blocks [boulders] and craters possibly to a depth of several meters.  So it could be that many smaller craters do exist but they're buried under the regolith . . . A thick covering of fine dust that prevents us from seeing what lies beneath might also be part of the answer to why the asteroid has little color variation.  It is possible that parts of Eros are covered in regolith as deep as a 10-story building.”
If this is true, it seems to cast grave doubt on the possibility that either the moon or the asteroid Eros are anywhere near their assumed multi-billion year ages.  Gold says, “The amount of material that is missing from the craters on the side of the moon visible from Earth, if distributed all over that area, would make a layer between one and two kilometers deep.  You either have to say that this material vanished from the moon, which is not likely, or that it had migrated downhill just as it would have done on Earth for different reasons.”  But that would seem to make the dust layers in the craters multiple kilometers deep, which they apparently are not.  This would make a good research project for a geologist not beholden to assumed long ages.
Next heading on: Dating methods. • Next headline on: Geology.
Tiny Fly Hears You Coming  04/05/2001
A fly can match a human’s acute sense of directional hearing, but with much smaller equipment, according to a paper in Nature summarized in
Scientific American.  Researchers used an ingenious treadmill (see the animated illustration) to measure the fly’s ability to determine the direction of sound within 2 degrees.  While humans can also achieve this, their ears are several inches apart.  By measuring the time delay between left and right ears, up to 10 microseconds, humans can calculate the direction of sound to a high degree of precision.  The fly, however, does the calculation with a much smaller head and brain, and with a left-right time delay of only 50 nanoseconds, a thousand times smaller.
One can be sure that the fly did not choose to design this amazing equipment on its own, nor did that blind, deaf and dumb goddess named Natural Selection, with her toolbox of broken parts (mutations).
Next headline on: Bugs and Crawlers. • Next amazing story.
Did Comets Deliver Seeds of Life?  04/05/2001
BBC News reports about a UC Berkeley team that simulated a comet collision with earth.  Not only did some amino acids survive, some were fused into peptide chains.  “At very low angles, we think that some water ice from the comet would remain intact as a liquid puddle concentrated with organic molecules, ideal for the development of life,” Jennifer Blank said.  “This impact scenario provides the three ingredients believed necessary for life: liquid water, organic material and energy.”
    Meanwhile, a group of scientists met yesterday in San Diego to argue whether organic molecules could survive the rigors of space en route to earth.  Most agreed it is possible, but there is much to learn.
See the response to our April 4 headline on proteins.  Getting building blocks of life like amino acids is no big deal.  Life is far more than its building blocks: it is a bewildering system of precisely functioning parts, coded for in a massive library of complex specified information stored in DNA.  If amino acids are comparable to scattered letters of a Scrabble game, a functioning cell is like the Encyclopedia Britannica.
Next headline on: Comets. • Next headline on: Solar System.
Next dumb story.
Faith in Life on Mars Produces Strange Bedfellows  04/04/2001
Two stories about life on Mars appeared in today’s news, from radically opposed camps.  NASA, according to a story in
Space.Com, is working hard to prevent back contamination of Earth by possible Martian microbes when the first sample return mission takes place around 2011.  On the other extreme, the Face on Mars believers have announced a news conference tomorrow to claim NASA has covered up evidence of artificial structures on the red planet.
While nobody knows whether anything alive will turn up on Mars someday (which is extremely unlikely because of the environment and previous observations both from space and the surface), both these camps base their conclusions on the belief that life is so easy to evolve, it must be ubiquitous.  See next story for some of the hard facts of life.  Both camps need to study our Baloney Detector.
Next headline on: Mars. • Next headline on: Solar System.
Protein Sequencing Makes Winning Lottery Look Easy  04/04/2001
In the world of protein molecules, it is possible for two totally different proteins to perform the same function, much like you can open a jar with your hand or with a wrench.  But while discussing this fact,
Nature Science Update today makes some surprising admissions about the improbability of getting a usable protein by chance.  In an article about bioengineering, author John Whitfield states: “If you wanted to make a working protein, but didn’t know where to start, how many rolls of the biochemical dice would it take to get lucky?  One hundred billion, say Anthony Keefe and Jack Szostak, of the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, who’ve tried it to hunt out proteins to do a predetermined job from a vast number of random genes.
    “These sort of odds make buying a lottery ticket seem like a sound investment.  They suggest, says Ronald Breaker, a molecular biologist at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, that you’d have to strain a sizeable quantity of primordial soup before you found something that evolution could get its teeth into.”
And yet it happened!  This is the degree of faith in chance that an evolutionist must have.  The author goes on to discuss how humans can select a workable protein by artificial selection (a form on intelligent design), but implies that somehow, somewhere, against all odds, it must have happened by chance at the origin of life.  (Notice also how he personifies evolution as if it had teeth.)
    The problem is far worse for evolution than Whitfield portrays.  Getting even one protein that is usable for life’s intricate functions is astronomically improbable, but you would need hundreds of them, all matching, to get a complete cell complex enough to replicate all its parts!  This is a minimum requirement for a naturalistic origin of life.  The reader is referred to Evolution: Possible or Impossible? by James F. Coppedge, available at this site.
Next headline on: The Cell and Biochemistry. • Next headline on: Origin of Life.
Hubble Telescope Captures Speeding Supernova  04/03/2001
Hubble Space Telescope caught a distant supernova that appears brighter than expected.  Some cosmologists are seeing evidence for an anti-gravity force in the universe that is accelerating the Big-Bang expansion of the universe.  See the photo at Astronomy Picture of the Day.
Ever get the impression that cosmologists are totally baffled and haven’t a clue what is going on out there?  At any rate, the old “oscillating universe” model appears to be long dead, and along with it, any hopes for an infinitely-old universe.
Next headline on: Cosmology. • Next headline on: Physics. • Next headline on: Stars.
Darwin’s “Abominable Mystery” Solved?  04/03/2001
Charles Darwin called the origin of
flowering plants an “abominable mystery” since they appear suddenly in the fossil record without ancestors (as do most categories of organisms.  Now a Stanford University team claims they have found oleanane, a compound unique to flowering plants, in Permian rocks estimated at 120 million years older than the debut of flowering plants.  On April 18, NASA Science printed an article on this topic, with pictures of fossils and the structure of oleanane.
Even if one were to accept their highly questionable dates for the rocks, they found neither evolution nor a solution to Darwin’s abominable mystery.  In fact, it makes the mystery worse for the evolutionist.  Here are found gigantopterids, plants already having modern-looking seeds, leaves and stems, and the ability to manufacture oleanane, with no ancestors.  No transitional forms appear in between; all the other flowering plants still make their abrupt appearance in the fossil record.  Where is the evolution?  Christian nature lovers have no abominable mystery when it comes to the origin of flowering plants.  They know that on the third day, God created plants bearing seed after their kind, and saw that it was good.
Next headline on: Plants. • Next headline on: Darwinism.
Article 04/02/2001:  Answers in Genesis has reprinted a letter to the editor of the Birmingham News by creationist Dr. Jonathan Sarfati responding to evolutionist Dr. Scott Brande.  Alabama evolutionists have been in an uproar since the State Board of Education in 1996 ordered a disclaimer be added to biology textbooks stating that evolution has never been observed and should be considered a controversial theory.
Next headline on: Schools.

Novel Protein With Non-Natural Amino Acid Created  04/02/2001
A research team at
University of Buffalo has constructed a protein containing a non-natural amino acid.  All living things use only 20 of the possible amino acids, but Dr. Suga’s team “evolved” an RNA enzyme able to attach a non-natural amino acid to a protein.  He claims this supports the “RNA-World” theory of the origin of life.

Dr. Suga says, “Using an in vitro version of Darwinian natural evolution, we have evolved this RNA catalyst, which provides evidence for support that RNA may well have served as the evolutionary vehicle necessary for the development of present-day, DNA-protein-based life forms.”  This is not Darwinian natural evolution: if it were, he would have had to put all the naturally occurring molecules in the test tube (including the detrimental ones) in infinitesimally small concentrations, with a 50-50 mix of left- and right-handed forms, and wait hopelessly for millions of years for nothing to happen.  What the team committed was not “Darwinian natural evolution,” but investigator interference, followed by a lot of bluffing about evolution.
Next headline on: Origin of Life.
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A Concise Guide
to Understanding
Evolutionary Theory

You can observe a lot by just watching.
– Yogi Berra

First Law of Scientific Progress
The advance of science can be measured by the rate at which exceptions to previously held laws accumulate.
1. Exceptions always outnumber rules.
2. There are always exceptions to established exceptions.
3. By the time one masters the exceptions, no one recalls the rules to which they apply.

Darwin’s Law
Nature will tell you a direct lie if she can.
Bloch’s Extension
So will Darwinists.

Finagle’s Creed
Science is true.  Don’t be misled by facts.

Finagle’s 2nd Law
No matter what the anticipated result, there will always be someone eager to (a) misinterpret it, (b) fake it, or (c) believe it happened to his own pet theory.

Finagle’s Rules
3. Draw your curves, then plot your data.
4. In case of doubt, make it sound convincing.
6. Do not believe in miracles – rely on them.

Murphy’s Law of Research
Enough research will tend to support your theory.

Maier’s Law
If the facts do not conform to the theory, they must be disposed of.
1. The bigger the theory, the better.
2. The experiments may be considered a success if no more than 50% of the observed measurements must be discarded to obtain a correspondence with the theory.

Eddington’s Theory
The number of different hypotheses erected to explain a given biological phenomenon is inversely proportional to the available knowledge.

Young’s Law
All great discoveries are made by mistake.
The greater the funding, the longer it takes to make the mistake.

Peer’s Law
The solution to a problem changes the nature of the problem.

Peter’s Law of Evolution
Competence always contains the seed of incompetence.

Weinberg’s Corollary
An expert is a person who avoids the small errors while sweeping on to the grand fallacy.

Souder’s Law
Repetition does not establish validity.

Cohen’s Law
What really matters is the name you succeed in imposing on the facts – not the facts themselves.

Harrison’s Postulate
For every action, there is an equal and opposite criticism.

Thumb’s Second Postulate
An easily-understood, workable falsehood is more useful than a complex, incomprehensible truth.

Ruckert’s Law
There is nothing so small that it can’t be blown out of proportion

Hawkins’ Theory of Progress
Progress does not consist in replacing a theory that is wrong with one that is right.  It consists in replacing a theory that is wrong with one that is more subtly wrong.

Macbeth’s Law
The best theory is not ipso facto a good theory.

Disraeli’s Dictum
Error is often more earnest than truth.

Advice from Paul

Guard what was committed to your trust, avoiding the profane and idle babblings and contradictions of what is falsely called knowledge – by professing it some have strayed concerning the faith.

I Timothy 6:20-21

Song of the True Scientist

O Lord, how manifold are Your works!  In wisdom You have made them all.  The earth is full of Your possessions . . . . May the glory of the Lord endure forever.  May the Lord rejoice in His works . . . . I will sing to the Lord s long as I live; I will sing praise to my God while I have my being.  May my meditation be sweet to Him; I will be glad in the Lord.  May sinners be consumed from the earth, and the wicked be no more.  Bless the Lord, O my soul!  Praise the Lord!

from Psalm 104

Maxwell’s Motivation

Through the creatures Thou hast made
Show the brightness of Thy glory.
Be eternal truth displayed
In their substance transitory.
Till green earth and ocean hoary,
Massy rock and tender blade,
Tell the same unending story:
We are truth in form arrayed.

Teach me thus Thy works to read,
That my faith,– new strength accruing–
May from world to world proceed,
Wisdom’s fruitful search pursuing
Till, thy truth my mind imbuing,
I proclaim the eternal Creed –
Oft the glorious theme renewing,
God our Lord is God indeed.

James Clerk Maxwell
One of the greatest physicists
of all time (a creationist).

Featured Creation Scientist for April
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin

William Thomson, Scottish physicist and mathematician, later awarded the barony Kelvin of Largs which gave him the more familiar title “Lord Kelvin”, was the most eminent scientist in Britain in his day.  He was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at the University of Glasgow in Scotland for over 50 years.  Lord Kelvin was largely responsible for the rise of engineering, taking the meteoric discoveries being made by 19th century scientists to practical uses for man.  He supervised the first successful transatlantic cable that brought instantaneous communication across the ocean for the first time.  This succeeded only with his invention of signal amplifiers and sensitive receivers.  With James Joule, he discovered the Joule-Thomson effect that ushered in the invention of refrigerators.  His name is also commemorated in the Kelvin temperature scale, that begins at absolute zero (a concept he originated), which is widely used in physics and astronomy.  Perhaps Lord Kelvin’s most significant achievement was defining the concept of energy and formalizing the laws of thermodynamics.  Applying the Second Law to the universe as a whole, he predicted the heat death of the universe in the future, which also ruled out an infinitely-old universe.

As a Christian, Lord Kelvin was a gentle, wise and generous family man, faithful in his church, an ardent student of the Scriptures and a promoter of Christian education.  He believed church members should study the maps in the back of their Bibles and understand history.  He often expressed awe at the beauty, design and orderliness of creation and natural law.  But he also recognized the rise of Darwinism both for its bad science and evil influence.  Accordingly, he contested the arguments of Huxley and others that the earth was millions of years old.  In a famous interchange, he argued mathematically that the earth and the sun could not be that old, based on his own knowledge of thermodynamics.  His argument for a maximum age for the earth was made before the discovery of radioactivity (for the earth) and thermonuclear reactions (for the sun), and has been largely discounted unfairly on that basis.  (In actuality, the age of the earth and sun are difficulties for evolution even today.)  Nevertheless, Lord Kelvin was respected even by “Darwin’s bulldog” Thomas Huxley as a gentleman, a scholar, and a formidable opponent.  Known for his self-confidence, Kelvin held the Darwinists’ feet to the fire of scientific rigor, and didn’t let them get by with mere storytelling.  His students respected him for his skill at discovering underlying, unifying principles and motivating them to do their best.

William Thomson, Lord Kelvin published over 600 research papers and served as president of the Royal Society.  Showered with honorary doctorates from around the world, he had right to more letters after his name than any of his contemporaries.  He received numerous awards and was knighted by the queen.  Not only did he advance science in fundamental ways himself, he mentored Joule, Maxwell, Tait and other eminent scientists.  He was buried in Westminster Abbey after a long and successful career.

For more information on Kelvin and other great Christians in science, see our on line book:
The World’s Greatest Creation Scientists from 1000 to 2000 A.D.
Copies are also available from our online store.