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  TABLE OF CONTENTS

by Dr. James F. Coppedge

   Contents

   TITLE PAGE and Dedication       3

   LIST OF FIGURES       11

   PREFACE      13

   ACKNOWLEDGMENTS      15

   INTRODUCTION      19

    • The Golden Molecule    19
    • Applying Probability Theory    21
    • Science and Philosophy of Science    22
    • The Value to You of Certainty    25
    • Are Evolution and Science Synonymous?    28
    • It Is Now Possible to Be Sure    30
    • Why This Particular Book?    31
    • Your Certainty Can Remain Up-to-Date    32
    • The Plan of This Book    33
  1. HOW THE “LAWS OF CHANCE” AFFECT YOU      37

    • The Path We Will Take    37
    • Who Figured Out the Laws of Chance?    40
    • Probability Theory in Modern Physics    40
    • Books on Probability    41
    • Are the Laws of Chance Intuitive?    42
    • When Probability Does Not Apply    43
    • It Is Proper to Apply Probability Theory to Evolution    44
    • Probability–Not Always What One Would Expect    45
    • Prove It to Yourself So You May Be Sure    45

  2. THE HEART OF MODERN PROBABILITY THEORY      47

    • The Law of Large Numbers    47
    • Make Your Experiments Scientific    48
    • The Multiplication Rule (Learn It Well!)    48
    • Can Chance Count to Ten?    50
    • Shorten Your Experiment Time    50
    • To Spell “Evolution” by Chance    51
    • Further Tests for Chance    52
    • Chance Is Moronic    52
    • Special Note to the Reader    53

  3. THE MYSTERY OF THE LEFT-HANDED MOLECULES IN PROTEINS      55

    • Understanding Proteins–Complex, Yet Built on a Simple Plan    57
    • Proteins Are Chains of Amino Acid Molecules    57
    • Amino Acids Also Are Built on a Simple Plan    58
    • How Can a Molecule Be Left-Handed?    59
    • Only Left-Handed Amino Acids in Proteins    62
    • Efforts to Account for the Left-Handed Phenomenon    65
    • No Satisfactory Answer Has Been Found    66
    • No Natural Solution Unless Chance Could Produce This Effect    67
    • Left- and Right-Handed Amino Acids Can Be Linked    68
    • Will Opposites Join With Equal Ease?    69

  4. THE ODDS AGAINST PROTEINS WITH ONLY LEFT-HANDED COMPONENTS      71

    • The Simplest Possible Living Thing    71
    • Using All the Proteins That Ever Existed on Earth    74
    • Probability Figured If 6/7 Preference for the Same Hand    75
    • Conclusion: No Conceivable Probability    77
    • The Wisdom Built In    79

  5. WHERE NATURAL SELECTION FAILS      81

    • The Process of Natural Selection    81
    • Natural Selection Cannot Select What Is Not There!    82
    • The Failure of Mutations to Explain Evolution    83
    • Mutations Produce No New Characters    86
    • Natural Selection Cannot Explain “Fine-Tuning” Adaptations    88
    • Micro-Mutations and Long Ages of Time    89
    • Attempts to Find New Methods Other Than Mutations    89
    • Natural Selection Helpless Before Duplication Developed    90
    • Computers That Vetoed Natural Selection    92
    • Darwin Conceded an Error Which Weakens the Theory    93
    • The Crime of the Age    94

  6. PROBABILITY AND THE FIRST PROTEINS      95

    • Wrong Ideas About Probability    96
    • Some Proteins Described    98
    • Protein Links Must Be in Correct Order    99
    • The Odds Against a Single Insulin Molecule    102
    • Usable Proteins and Nonsense Chains of Amino Acids    103
    • Allowing Concessions to Make Things Easier for Chance    105
    • Using All the Atoms on Earth for Making Proteins by Chance    108
    • The Odds Against an Average Protein by Chance Since the Earth Began    109
    • To Obtain a Set of Protein Molecules for Minimal Life    110
    • The Second Protein Molecule Is More Difficult    110
    • No Conceivable Chance of Success    111
    • Another Extreme Concession to Help Chance, but All in Vain    113
    • A More Realistic Calculation    114

  7. HOW LARGE NUMBERS CAN HELP YOU      117

    • Why Understanding Large Numbers Is Important    117
    • Examples of Large Numbers    118
    • A Number Too Big to Imagine    119
    • The Case of the Traveling Ameba    119
    • Why Some Probabilities Are So Small    120
    • The Laws of Chance Are Dependable    121
    • Calculations Can Be Scientific–a Repeatable Study    121
    • Modern Atheism’s Substitute for God    122
    • Practical Impossibility    123

  8. DNA—“THE MOST GOLDEN OF ALL MOLECULES”      125

    • Size of the DNA Molecule    125
    • A Quick Way to Understand the Plan of the Code    126
    • The Exotic DNA “Double Helix”    127
    • Letters of the Universal Language    131
    • Changing From Four Letters to Sixty-Four “Triplets”    133
    • Translating to Proteins    133
    • How DNA Duplicates Itself    134
    • Complementary Pairing Is the Secret of Replication    135
    • Summarizing the Language of Life    137
    • A Language Indicates an Intelligent Source    138

  9. THE REMARKABLE WAY CELLS TRANSLATE DNA      139

    • DNA Directs the Cell’s Activities    139
    • Transcribing From DNA to RNA Working Copies    140
    • The Transcription Process    141
    • Turned-off Genes and Sophisticated Controls    142
    • “Ribosomes” Which Process the RNA Copy    145
    • Transfer RNA, Delivery Vehicle for Amino Acids    146
    • The Enzyme “Interpreter”    147
    • Summarizing the Translation Process    147
    • New Discoveries Reveal Even More Complex Precision    149
    • Highly Organized Efficiency in an Intricate System    150
    • Source of the System    151
    • Evolution Has No Solution for the Origin of Life    152

  10. COULD CHANCE ARRANGE THE CODE FOR ONE GENE?      155

    • The DNA System Excites Admiration    155
    • The Only Duplication System    156
    • A Gene Is a “Paragraph” of the DNA Message    157
    • Using All the Atoms in the Universe    158
    • The Number of Possible Orders in a Gene    159
    • Chances of One Gene in the Entire Universe    160
    • How Long Is 10147 Years?    161
    • Random Occurrences Governed by Rules    161
    • The Fallacy That Time Can Produce the Extremely Improbable    162
    • Wasting “Cerebral Horsepower”    163
    • Slowing the Ameba to One Angstrom Unit in Fifteen Billion Years    164
    • The Second Gene Would Take Interminably Longer    165
    • The Single Law of Chance    166
    • Logic Requires Belief in a Designer    167

  11. WHY HAS EVOLUTION BEEN WIDELY ACCEPTED?      169

    • Scientists Are Fallible Human Beings    169
    • Degrees of Commitment to Evolution    170
    • A Fashionable False Idea    171
    • Columbus and the Indians: The Matter of Overview    172
    • Fear of Teleology As a Threat to Human Conceit    173
    • Evolution As a Religious Faith    174
    • Bias Against the Supernatural    175
    • Theistic Evolution a Compromise?    176
    • Why God Didn’t Make Things Unmistakably Clear    177
    • True Science Requires Courage    178

  12. THE ASSUMED EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION      183

    • Persuasive Promotion of an Inferior Product    183
    • The Geological Time Scale    184
    • Ancient Man    186
    • Horses and Dinosaurs    188
    • Coal and Oil Deposits    190
    • Fossils and the Flood    190
    • Evidence Accumulating for a Young Earth    193
    • Further Indications of a Young Earth and Universe    196
    • How Old Is the Moon?    197
    • Life in Outer Space?    201
    • Life Created in the Laboratory?    202
    • Comparative Anatomy    202
    • Amino Acid Sequences in Proteins    203
    • Vestigial Organs    205
    • Embryonic Recapitulation    206
    • Further Reading on Assumed Proofs of Evolution    206
    • The Vastness of the Universe    207
    • Where Are Heaven and Hell?    208
    • No Greater Entity Than a “Person”    211

  13. EXAMPLES OF PHENOMENA UNEXPLAINABLE BY EVOLUTION      213

    • Powerhouse for the Cell    213
    • A Bird That Found Its Way Home 3,200 Miles in Twelve and One-Half Days    214
    • Feathers and Eggshells    215
    • The Amazing Mechanism for Winglift in Birds    216
    • The Brain, a Marvel Beyond Description    217
    • Darwin’s “Cold Shudders”    218
    • Physical Properties of Elements and Compounds    220
    • More Wonders in Molecular Biology    221
    • Photosynthesis and Magnesium Atoms    222
    • Age-old Questions    223
    • The Bear and the Boeing 747    224
    • “The Universe Is Friendly”    226
    • The Blasphemy of Ingratitude    227
    • Signboards That Point Upward    227
    • He Made It for You    228

  14. INCREASING YOUR CERTAINTY      229

    • Evolution Ruled Out by the Single Law of Chance    230
    • Applying the Principles We’ve Learned    232
    • Probability Calculations by Others    233
    • Schrodinger the Physicist and “the Lord’s Quantum Mechanics”    236
    • Sure Cure for Doubt Regarding Evolution    238
    • With Certainty, One Can Now Be More Aware, More Alive    239

APPENDIX  1      243

         On the Origin of Left-handed Components in Proteins

APPENDIX  2      249

         The Question of Preference for the Same Hand

APPENDIX  3      257

         Notes on Quastlar’s The Emergence of Biological Organization

APPENDIX  4      261

         Problems in Molecular Evolution Hypotheses

INDEX      267

BACK COVER CREDITS


List of Figures

  1. Forms of the DNA Molecule    20

  2. Left- and Right-Handed Amino Acid Residues 60

  3. The Twenty Amino Acids Used in Proteins    101

  4. Meaningful Orders in 30,000 Random Letters    103

  5. Diagram of a Short Section of DNA    127

  6. Schematic Drawing of the DNA Double Helix    128

  7. A Section of a DNA Molecule, Drawn More Closely to Scale    128

  8. The Four Chemical Bases Which Serve as the Letters of DNA    129

  9. Schematic Picture of Base Pairing in the DNA Double Helix    130

  10. An Electron Micrograph of DNA Molecules    132

  11. DNA Replication    136

  12. The Genetic Code in Alphabetical Order    144

  13. Translation, or Protein Synthesis    148

 

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